Our list of the ten richest, based on scholarly estimates and adjusted for inflation, includes entrepreneurs, warriors, and robber barons. We did not include monarchs, whose vast wealth is considered public.
Bill Gates, Warren Buffett, and Carlos Slim are the only living men who crack the list — and that’s only counting their net worth at bubble peaks in 1999 and 2007.
#10 Stephen Girard
Peak fortune: $105 billion
Source of wealth: Successful in the shipping trade, he was a French-born American merchant that went into the banking business later in his life, owning a bank that was called “Girard’s Bank”.